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Association between Glaucoma with Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension

Karla Kalua, Raharjo . Kuntoyo, Andri Iryawan

Abstract


Background: The roles of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in optic neuropathy by mechanical pathway and vascular pathway have been estimated. They cause elevated intraocular pressure by mechanical pathway and reduced ocular perfusion pressure by vascular pathway. This study aimed to find out whether there is association between glaucoma with diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

Methods: This research was an analytical observational study with cross sectional approach. It was carried out in Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta from July 5th to October 11th 2014. Samples were patients in Dr. Moewardi hospital whom fulfill all of the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria. Sample size was 86 in which is taken by consecutive sampling. Data was from medical record and analyzed using Chi-square test, contingency coefficient test, and odds ratio (α=0.05).

Results: Among 54 (62.79%) patients with glaucoma, 13 (15.12%) patients within diabetes mellitus, 33 (38.37%) patients within hypertension, and 8 (9.3%) patients within diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Among 32 (37.21%)  patients without glaucoma, 4 (4.65%) patients within diabetes mellitus, 21 (24.42%)patients within hypertension, and 7 (8.14%) patients within diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The association between glaucoma and diabetes mellitus is not statistically significant (p=0.169) with OR= 2.844 (CI95%, 0.690-5.258). The association between glaucoma and hypertension is not statistically significant (p=0.587) with OR= 1.375 (CI95%, 0.434-4.353). The association between glaucoma and diabetes mellitus with hypertension is not statistically significant (p=0.404) with OR= 0.621 (CI95%, 0.202-1.914). The correlation between glaucoma and diabetes mellitus is weak (r=0.236); the correlation between glaucoma and hypertension is negligible (r=0.065); and the correlation between glaucoma and diabetes mellitus with hipertension is negligible (r=0.090).

Conclusion: There is no association between glaucoma with diabetes mellitus and hypertension in Dr. Moewardi Hospital.

Keywords: glaucoma, blindness, diabetes mellitus, hypertension

 


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